GBZ Belinyu

The Staatsblad van Nederlandsch-Indie (NI Staatutebook) of 25 January 1909 and Decision no. 6 of 5 January 1909 of the Governor-General Idenburg announces the appointment of an additional European doctor for the island of Bangka and the hospitals at Muntok, Djebous, Belinjoe, Soengailiat, Pangkalpinang, Soengaiselan, Koba and Toboali. These hospitals are authorized to appoint one mandoer per 100 patients with a monthly salary of f 20 (later to expand to f 30).For every 20 patients one nurse (oppasser) is allowed on a monthly salary between f 15 and f 20. Each Government hospital may also  appoint a servant for the linenroom and a barber. The European doctors are authorized to establish the monthly pay (minimum or maximum). Each hospital receives an annual budget for maintenance of buildings (f 3300), for electricity (f 3120), for purchase of linen and utensils (f 5,000), for additional hospital expenditure (f 1500). For transport costs of sick mine-workers an amount of f 5,000 is available and f 3000 for funeral costs.

The character of these hospitals is dual: these are government company hospitals and so they can be considered to be public hospitals but also company hospitals.

Bangka en Onderhoorigheden (Bangka and Dependencies) was in the 1930s a Residency consisting of the division Bangka and 5 subdivisions: 1. Pangkalpinang, 2. North Bangka, 3. Muntok, 4. Soengailiat, 5. South Bangka. The capital was Pangkalpinang. The former region Billiton is administrated by a Controleur BB with administrative post at  Tandjongpandan. The Dependencies are formed by the surrounding islands, which are very small with the exception of Poelau Lepar. Bangka had 205,432 inhabitants of whom 990  Europeans and 96,961 Chinese. Billiton had 73,400 inhabitants of whom 640 Europeans and 28,675 Chinese. The original inhabitant of these islands are Malayans, the same as the original inhabitants of the Residency Palembang. The islands have no inflow of the Javanese culture. The people are called Orang Lom. The have not been islamized. The island is very infertile, but known because of its tin richness. The surface of Bangka is about 40 % of the Dutch surface. On Bangka the exploitation of tin happens by a Government company. On Billiton a private company (Billiton Maatschappij) is exploiting the tinmines. Tin also can be found in Perak (Straits Settlements), on the Karimoen islandsand on Singkep (Residency Riau and Dependencies).The oldest news about tin exxploitation date from 1710, when the Sultan of Palembang exploited the mines. He hired Chinese who worked in kongsi’s (companies in joint ownership). Nowadays the Government owns the domain of the tinmines and provides advances (Rice,oil and money). The tin that comes tight at the surface is called koelit-mines (koelit means skin), the deeper layers are called kolongmines (kolong is Hole in the ground). Originally the tin was in the rocks and was dispersed by rivers. In reclaiming the tin, the upper layer is washed loose. Basins are developed and the tin is gathered during the rainy season, The tinore is very thin (SnO2) and is being washed with so-called doelangs (shallow basins ) with streaming water. During night time the melting down takes place in ovens by adding charcoal. The mines need to be kept dry by pumping installations. The mine exploitation on Billiton dates from 1852, when the concession was granted to Prince Hendrik of the Netherlands and V.G. baron van Tuyl van Serooskerken. In 1860 the Billiton Maatschappij was founded and the exploitation was inthe hands of C. de Groot. A new concession lasting to 1927 provided for a large share of the state in the net profit (some 65 %). In 1924 the Government of the NI and the Billiton Maatschappij founded together the “Gemeenschappelijke Mijnbouwmaatschappij BIlliton”. The concession of which took an end by 1948 (Gonggryp 1934, 89-92).