Main building Mission hospital KITLV image code 1403548)
It was about 1894, when people in the Mojowarno region joined forces to build a hospital. Money had been collected by interested neighbouring companies and Dutch civil servants. The local population, many of whom had been christened by the missionaries of the Nederlandsch Zendingsgenootschap (Rotterdam 1797), was mobilized and voluntarily went into the woods to cut trees and assist in transporting the wood towards the building place. Digging, setting bricks, buiding walls and much more work was executed by the people of Modjowarno and neighbouring villages. The hospital was designed by Ir. S.W. Becking from Modjokerto, a neighbouring town. On the 23rd of March 1892 the Regent of Modjokerto and Djombang, Raden Adipati Kromo Djojo Adi Negoro, laid the first stone and on the 6th of June 1894 the 60-beds hospital was solemnly opened by the same Regent. At this moment, after almost 120 years it still exists at that place.
Before this hospital was established, a missionary treated patients at his home with the help of doctors from the neighbourhood. The missionaries, father and son Kruyt, at first visited the patients at their homes and when this became too time-consuming they built a small bamboo policlinic. They received assistance from 2 Javanese teachers, one of whom fulfilled the clerk duties and the other treated eye problems. 2 servants and 4 nurses completed the team of nine persons, of whom 6 without salary. When the hospital started in 1894 with 50 patients, few could have predicted that at that place in the interior, far from population centres, in a desa of 3000 inhabitants, a hospital could survive and develop into a 300 bed hospital with a very busy policlinic of some 100 visitors a day. Soon after the start of the hospital some professional health workers entered the services. First of all, the dokter-djawa Ismaël from Bodjonegoro who was to stay in the hospital for 31 years. He received his salary from the government. Two years later the Dutch Dr. Bervoets joined the hospital staff, directing the organization and starting a very well visited polyclinic. His wife, a professional nurse, became head of the nursing department and started training for indigenous nurses. Later on she received assistance from another European nurse. Dr. Bervoets stayed at the hospital until 1905. His services were only available for the indigenous population of Modjowarno and surroundings. The services of the hospital were delivered free of charge for those patients who were poor and had no money to spare. At Modjowarno there was little hesitance among the population towards European health care, because it was free and there was no compulsory power to force them. Dr. Bervoets had an explanation for the hesitance that was met elsewhere. It could be explained because of the compulsory nature that characterized a lot of European health care. He remarked that gifts of love that had been offered by deurwaardersexploit (warrant of execution) could not expect much appreciation. Soon after his arrival the hospital got a substantial extension. Three large wards were added for male patients (internal diseases, eyes and wound treatment) and one first class department for priyayi. Besides two female wards were added and a separate department for leprosy patients. The director took the initiative to start training for Javanese girls to become midwives. During his stay at Modjowarno two groups of girls received this training. They became midwives and exercised this profession for many years in that region. After his leave, Dr. Bervoets came for a short while back in Modjowarno and then decided to start a new mis- sion hospital at Kelet on the premises of the Baptist Missionary Association. The hospital published some medical statistics of the years 1910 and 1933. From these surveys the following data were derived: Admissions 1910 and 1930: 1,607 and 4,289. Average bed-occupation: 196 and 284. Number of inpatient days: 71,380 and 104,005. Number of outpatients: 6,350 and 7,319. Outpatient consulations: 37,588 and 33,764. The patient records for the year 1933 show the following diseaase patterns of inpatients: Epidemic and communicable diseases (1,899), Sense organ diseases (849), Cardiovascular diseases (46), Respir- atory diseases (148), Digestive diseases (361), Genito-urinary diseases (169), Skin diseases (439), Maternal conditions (81), Musculo-skeletal diseases ( 18), Congenital anomalies (12), Childhood –cluster diseases (29), Injuries (190), others (48). The surgery effectuated 1,058 operations, 667 of which were eye operations. Within the total group of admittances of 4,289 patients, 70 % (3,041) were male and only 30 % (1,248) women and children.The large group of communicable diseases comprises a.o. Malaria (168), Leprosy (52), Tuberculosis (251), Sex- ually Transmitted Diseases (680). The writer comments on the ever increasing numbers of venereal diseases.’ It is evident that the intensifying of traffic is responsible for the rate of this type of problems in a rural area.’
The writer comments further on the number of leprosy patients: ‘this is a new phenomenon. Not long ago these patients were sent to the leprosy asylum at Donorodjo, but today they have no place for new patients there. We started to take a few probably curable patients, but soon quite a lot tried to get access to the hospital. We shall try to start a provision of erf-isolatie (isolation on the premises) in the Regency of Djombang, as has been experimented at Grissee, followed by a leprosy village and a provision for leper children. The rather long average stay in the hospital (24 days) is caused partly by the stay of these patients that may last for months, sometimes years.’ As for the external poliklinieken (outpatient clinics) and the hulpziekenhuizen (auxiliary hospitals), functioning within the Modjowarno healthcare network, the memorial volume of 40 years Modjowarno hospital, mentions the following history:
- The auxiliary hospital at Pareeredjo (Paree, Kediri) started in 1921 and has a well visited outpatient department, but the bed occupation is disappointing, on average 15. The hospital is situated remote from Pareeredjo and is difficult to access by the dirt roads. The mantri-nurse Moerio is called desa doctor by the people from the neighbourhood and he deserves that name completely, he is the right man in this place; the hospital receives subsidy from the NI Government.
- The second auxiliary hospital at Ngoro (Djombang) was also founded in 1921. The hospital is owned by the Colonial Bank, but is managed by the Modjowarno hospital. he Bank imposes no limitations to the way the hospital is run. The head mantri-nurse Soepardi has been the leading person from the beginning. In 1933 the average occupation was 32 patients per day and the number of outpatient contacts was 55 per day. The hospital receives subsidy from the NI Government.
- The auxiliary hospital at Segaran (Delanggoe, Modjokerto) has stopped its services in 1923, when outpatient clinics were founded by the sugar companies in the neighbourhood and the GBZ at Modjokerto was renovated. Sometime later the Eschauzier-concern established a new hospital at Modjokerto, destined for the Javanese.
- The start of a new auxiliary hospital at Wonosalam is about to be realized. It is intended to nurse tuberculosis patients. The sanatorium will be opened in 1934. This plan has been facilitated by a three year stipend from the Stichting Centrale Vereeniging tot bestrijding der Tuberculose in NI. See A.J. Duymaer van Twist, Verslag van het Zendingshospitaal te Modjowarno 1910.
- Next to the outpatient departments connected to the auxiliary hospitals there are 4 so-called losse poliklinieken (outer policlinics). Medical checks and administration are organized by the main hospital at Modjowarno. The daily management is in the hands of the mantri-nurses, who coincidentally are married to a midwife.
- At Seloredjo the mantri-nurse 1st class Pada Djasrema is working from the start in July 1920; the average number of consultations is 53 per day;
- At Modjoagoeng the outpatient clinic exists from 1November It is financially supported by a sugar company of the NHM (Modjo Agoeng/ Soekodhono) and is housed in a building, owned by that company. Mantri Atmodjo and his wife, the midwife Srimasning have been employed since the start. The average number of consultations is 59 per day;
- At Soemobito the outpatient clinic was founded in 1925. This clinic too is financially support- ed by a sugar company (the firm Heirs Eilbracht)and housed in a company building. Mantri- nurse Saiman and his wife Prapti run this policlinic from the beginning. The average number of consults is 46 per day.
- At Kandangan a small policlinic was taken over from the desa on recommendation by the In- spector DVG. Kasnam was the first managing nurse. After his death he was followed by Moenasim. The NIWEM (Water and Electricity Company) financially supported this.
- In former times there were a few more policlinics, but they are closed. The reason why had to do with the foundation of policlinics in the immediate neighbourhood by the Regency. In this way the policlinics at Toendjoengredjo (Loemadjang) and Poerworedjo (Wates, Kediri) could not be maintained. The one at Bongsoredjo was closed for financial reasons, it was run by the desa, but was situated at to close a distance from the central hospital.
The writer memorizes the coming of the second missionary hospital for East Java at Malang, which could be realized with the cooperation of many persons, trained at Mojowarno. In 1927 and 1931 the nurses Hulzebos and Schuurman started community healthcare at Malang and Soerabaja. As they were both midwives, their work evolved to centres of care for women and children.
During some postwar years the hospital was used by the Indonesian Army and was called Rumah Sakit Pertahanan Surabaya di Mojowarno (Defense hospital Surabaya of Mojowarno).
Nowadays the Hospital is called Rumah Sakit Kristen Mojowarno and is classified Category C. Its address is: Jalan Merdeka no. 59, Mojowarno, Jombang.