In order to reorganize the mental health care in the NI, two new types of psychiatric facilities were introduced in the 1920s:
- the psychiatric nursing home (Psychiatrisch verpleegtehuis) for long-stay patients. The health statistics of 1938 mention 6 psychiatric nursing homes (Palembang, Padang, Bandjermasin, Manado, Bangli and Soekolilo).
- the psychiatric passage home (Psychiatrisch doorgangshuis) for the treatment of acute cases for up to six months.
The health statistics of 1937 mention 6 ‘doorgangshuizen’ (Batavia (Grogol), Semarang (Tawang), Soerakarta (Mangoendjajan), Soerabaya (Pegirian), Medan (Gloegoer) and Makassar).
See for a discussion on the organization of psychiatric healthcare in the Netherlands Indies the 1937 editions of the Geneeskundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie (GTNI). Three authors (P.M. van Wulfften Palthe, J.C. van Andel and W.F. Theunissen) discuss the merites of the chosen system of 4 very large and expensive main hospitals and 12 secondary institutions. Van Wulfften Palthe (speaking as head of a psychiatric department of a central civil government hospital) and the directors of the large psychiatric hospitals have totally different points of view: vWP emphasizes that the present system is far too expensive and leads to continuance of the practice of keeping most psychiatric patients in prisons, as there is no place in the psychiatric institutions themselves.
vWP argues that the present system ends in shoddy work. Hardly a home is established at Makassar (that in due course is completely crowded) or Bali wants its own institute and Sumatra’s Eastcoast cannot stay behind. “it looks as if we empty the ocean with a tea-spoon.”
The auxiliary psychiatric hospital at Surabaya has a long history. It existed before the first large psychiatric hospital at Buitenzorg was established. In 1905 its was closed and its patients were transported to the newly opened psychiatric hospital at Lawang (April 1905). But a new policy was introduced, when the two main psychiatric hospitals became overcrowded. New provisions were established, such as the so-called ‘psychiatrische doorgangshuizen’ and the ‘psychiatrische verpleeghuizen’.
Nowadays, the psychiatric hospital Rumah Sakit Jiwa Menur is successor to the auxiliary psychiatric hospital of Surabaya and to the Passage Home (Surabaya, Pegirian). The modern hospital is part of the health establishments of the province of Jawa Timur. The hospital is situated on the Jalan Raya Menur no. 120 at Surabaya. The hospital is classified as a category A hospital (reg.code 3578192) and has got a capacity of 245 beds.
Its geological coordinates are – 7,29 (Latitude) and 112,76 (Longitude).
The website of the Menur Mental Hospital is: http://www.rsjmenur.jatimprov.go.id
The website tells the recent history of the hospital as follows: (translated and abbreviated):
Initially, in 1923 the Menur Mental Hospital in Surabaya was a “Doorgangshuis” or temporary shelter for people with mental disorders with a capacity of 100 beds. Until 1977 the address was Jl. Karang Tembok and it was called: “Pegirian Mental Hospital.”